Vitamin: An Organic nutrient (as opposed to a Mineral, which is inorganic) essential for normal physiological and Metabolic functions of the body. Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be ingested in food or supplements.

Vitamin A: An important fat soluble Vitamin that helps in the formation and maintenance of healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes and skin. It is also known as Retinol, as it generates the pigments that are necessary for the working of the retina. It promotes good vision, especially in dim light. It may also be required for reproduction and lactation. Beta-carotene, which has Antioxidant properties, is a precursor to vitamin A. Because it is fat-soluble, it can accumulate in the Liver, so overdosing is possible. a

Vitamin B12: Also known as Cyanocobalamin, is a water soluble Vitamin involved in protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, as well as blood formation and nerve function. Sources are liver, kidneys, fish and meats. Deficiency, commonly called megablastic anemia, can occur in strict vegetarians and also in those who have a problem absorbing B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor, a substance secreted essential for absorption of vitamin B12. This can also occur as we age.

Vitamin B2: A water-soluble Vitamin (also known as Riboflavin) required by the body for health, growth and reproduction; part of the vitamin B complex. It is important for red cell production and helps release energy from Carbohydrates. Dietary sources include lean meats, eggs, Legumes, nuts, green leafy vegetables and dairy products. Breads and cereals are often fortified with Riboflavin. Oral contraceptives can reduce riboflavin levels.

Vitamin B3: Also known as Niacin or Nicotinic acid, it is used to treat various medical conditions such as high Cholesterol, peripheral vascular disease and Migraines. If supplementing with Niacin, be sure to get the flush-free variety. High doses can stress the Liver.

Vitamin B6: Also known as Pyridoxine, this water-soluble nutrient plays a role in the Immune System’s synthesis of Antibodies, helps maintain normal brain function and form red blood cells. It is also required for the chemical reactions of proteins. Vitamin B6 is found in beans, nuts, Legumes, eggs, meats, fish, Whole grains and fortified breads and cereals. The higher the protein intake, the greater the need for this nutrient. Deficiency of this Vitamin is not common in the United States. Excessive doses can cause neurological disorders and numbness.

Vitamin C: This water-soluble Vitamin, also known as Ascorbic acid, is an Antioxidant that has been shown to play a role in boosting the Immune System. The Recommended Daily Intake RDI) is 60-75mg per day, but Linus Pauling and other complementary practitioners recommend considerably higher doses for preventing the common cold. Sources of vitamin C include strawberries, peaches, plums, tomatoes, celery, onions and cabbage.

Vitamin K: A fat-soluble Vitamin that plays an important role in blood clotting, vitamin K is found in vegetables, including cabbage, cauliflower, spinach and other leafy greens, as well as in cereals and soybeans. The bacteria lining of the gastrointestinal tract also makes vitamin K. Vitamin K counteracts the effects of oral anticoagulant drugs such as Coumadin.

VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol: The type of lipoprotein made primarily by the liver cells to transport Lipids to various tissues in the body.

Magnesium: A silver-white mineral, the element magnesium is involved in nearly every essential bodily function, from the healing of the heart to the creation of bone and the regulation of Blood sugar. It helps to burn Fat and produce energy and is also known as the “gatekeeper of cellular activity.” Magnesium is abundant in foods such as Wheat, bran, almonds and tofu.

Maltitol: This Sugar alcohol is used by food manufacturers as a replacement for Carbohydrates such as Sucrose. It contributes only 2.1 Calories per gram as compared to sucrose’s 4 calories per gram; nor does it raise blood glucose as sucrose does.

Maltodextrin: A type of Sugar, and therefore a Carbohydrate, found in packaged foods.

Manganese: A trace element, this Mineral is essential for growth, reproduction, wound healing, peak brain function and for the proper Metabolism of Sugars, Insulin and Cholesterol.

Melatonin: A hormone secreted by the brain’s pineal gland, a small gland in the center of the brain that regulates body rhythms and, thus, sleep. Studies have shown that those with low melatonin levels who suffer insomnia are best helped by supplemental melatonin. It has also proven useful for jet lag and seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Mercury: A toxic metallic element found in old thermometers, some fireworks, paints, hair dyes, antiseptics and fungicides. The ingestion or inhalation of mercury-containing products or food such as fish contaminated by polluted water can cause mercury poisoning, which can lead to death.

Metabolic advantage: The benefit gained by switching the body from a glucose metabolism to a fat metabolism, thereby allowing the consumption of a greater number of Calories than is possible on other weight-control programs.

Metabolic resistance: A state in which it is extremely difficult to lose weight, despite restricted dietary consumption.

Metabolism: The process by which foods are transformed into basic elements that can be utilized by the body for energy or growth; the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells. Metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends all the Calories it gets from food.

Milligram: A unit of weight used in the metric system (abbreviated as mg). One thousand micrograms equals one milligram. One ounce is equivalent to 28.4 mg.

Mineral: In nutrition, a compound nutrient that contains an inorganic substance, such as a metal or other trace element found in the earth’s crust. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is a compound of Sodium and chlorine. Minerals play a vital role in regulating many of the body’s functions.

Molybdenum: A trace element that in supplemental form is known to cleanse the body of toxic compounds, generate energy, help manufacture hemoglobin and relieve symptoms of Arthritis and Asthma. This Mineral can be poisonous if ingested in large quantities.

Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, such as Glucose, Fructose and galactose.

Monounsaturated fat: A Fatty acid with only one double or triple bond per Molecule, it is found in such foods as fowl, almonds, pecans, cashew nuts, peanuts, avocado and olive and canola oil.

One thought on “Vitamins and Supplements”

  1. Almost forgot…
    ACETYL-L-CARNITINE ALC is one of the most important life extension nutrients. ALC has been shown to help relieve fatigue, prolong attentiveness, burn body fat, improve hand-eye coordination, enhance immune function, enhance energy metabolism in mitochondria and improve communication between hemispheres of the brain.

    AMINO ACIDS: Organic compounds which Proteins come from; responsible for tissue growth, repair and maintenance, controlling energy production and endurance; assist in supplying the body with hormones; create antibodies and enzymes; help to maintain and increase a positive nitrogen balance. There are 22 known amino acids required in a specific pattern to make human protein. Of these, there are eight which cannot be produced in the body and are referred to as “essential amino acids’ and therefore, should be supplied in your diet: L-isoleucine, L-Leucine, L-Lysine, L-Methionine, L-Phenylaianine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, and L-Valine. Children need supplementation of L-Arginine and L-Histidine. In order for the body to properly synthesize Protein, all the essential amino acids must be present simultaneously and in the proper proportions. Amino acids should be supplemented with Calcium (8)

    BORON: Active in the maintenance of human bone tissue, may also play roles in brain areas related to alertness and motor activity; an essential mineral for Testosterone production, but doesn’t cause the body to produce Testosterone. Intake above 50 mg/day may interfere with Phosphorous and Riboflavin metabolism, so don’t take large doses.(2)

    BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACIDS (BCAAS): Three amino acids (Leucine, lsoleucine and Valine) are quickly absorbed by muscle tissue and help create a positive Nitrogen balance thus promoting muscular growth.(3) There is some new evidence that BCAAs taken 1 – 2 hours before intense training spare muscle BCAA and spare Testosterone during training, and increase Testosterone levels after training. (2)

    CALCIUM & SODIUM PYRUVATE: Being called ‘The Universal Supplement,’ Pyruvate was found in studies at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine to increase body fat loss by up to 48%, while minimizing the loss of body protein (or muscle) when following a low-fat diet. It was also found to lower cholesterol levels in the body. In addition to its fat-burning capabilities, Pyruvate is also fast developing a reputation among athletes and bodybuilders for boosting energy, endurance and strength. Weight trainers benefit by converting Pyruvate in muscle cells into ATP, the source of usable energy. And endurance athletes also benefit from Pyruvate, which increases endurance by drawing extra glucose from the blood stream into muscle cells. Dieters using Pyruvate report nearly double the fat loss, as it keeps extra fat from being stored. Pyruvate is becoming one of the most popular supplements, with benefits for bodybuilders, endurance athletes and the general health conscious public.

    CHROMIUM: May work with the hormone Insulin to control blood glucose concentration. Works in conjunction with Insulin to transport Protein into muscle tissue. Mega-doses of Chromium are not ergogenic, but correct daily intakes may indeed be anabolic. (6)

    CoQlO: CoEnzyme Q10 is a natural substance with absolutely no toxic side effects, a revolutionary scientific breakthrough that can boost the immune system, strengthen the heart, prevent and cure gum disease and extend life naturally. Deficiency usually develops after age 35 to 40. (3)

    DHEA: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands is considered a key marker in determining biological age. DHEA also dramatically decreases body fat and increases lean muscle mass. (5)

    GABA (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID); Helps to decrease body fat and increases lean muscle mass by stimulating the brain to secrete increased amounts of human Growth Hormone. Most effective when taken before long periods of sleep. An essential fatty acid derivative that your body breaks down to obtain energy. Regulates your cardiovascular system and may lower blood pressure. Helps your growth potential – while you sleep. (8)

    GLUCOSE TOLERANCE FACTOR (GTF) Chromium occurs in foods in association with several different complexes; the one that is best absorbed and most active is a small organic compound, GTF. When Chromium is lacking, Insulin action is impaired and a Diabetes like condition results. (6) Chromium Polynicotinate, has been proven to be 30% more effective than Chromium Picolinate.

    L-CARNITINE: A natural amino acid from Lysine and Methionine (synthesized in the liver), and is necessary for converting fats to energy. L-Carnitine is a nonprotein amino acid. Transport of free fatty acids into the mitochondria (furnaces) of the cell for use as energy, requires L-Carnitine base enzymes as a transport system. Endurance exercise rapidly depletes the pool of L-Carnitine in muscle, so that amount of L-Carnitine available is a limiting factor on the energy supply of endurance athletes. L-Carnitine also operates to inhibit the buildup of Lactic Acid in muscle, one of the main causes of fatigue; also increases maximum use of oxygen in athletes. (8)

    L-GLUTAMINE: The most abundant free amino acid in muscle, comprising over 50% of the free amino acids. The level of Glutamine is also highly correlated with muscle protein synthesis. Glutamine carries two nitrogen molecules, the main transporter of nitrogen waste. (8)

    L-ISOLEUCINE: Primarily metabolized in muscle tissue. Essential for the formation of hemoglobin. (6)

    L-LEUCINE: Metabolized in muscle tissue. Promotes healing of skin and broken bones. Lowers elevated blood sugar levels. (6)

    L-VALINE: Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by the liver and muscles). Used in treatment of severe amino acid deficiencies. (6)

    MAGNESIUM: Is essential for burning of glucose for fuel transmission of the genetic code, muscle contraction and a zillion other functions you can’t exist without. Over 80% of the Magnesium in food is lost by removal of the germ and outer layers of cereal grains in white and so-called ‘enriched’ flours. The Colgan Institute recommends Magnesium supplements of 400-1200 mg per day with athletes. (2)
    MELATONIN: Regulates the onset of sleep. May also be useful therapy in treating jet lag, cancer preventative and treatment of some forms of depression. Also helps ‘take the edge off’ medications for dieting and weight-loss programs. (5)

    OKG: Patients given oral Ornithine Alpha-Keto Glutarate after surgery reduced muscle loss and increased synthesis of muscle protein. Alpha-Keto Glutarate is called the carbon skeleton of the amino acid Glutamine. It was developed during the ’60s to treat liver disease by reducing ammonia buildup. But when combined with Ornithine (2 molecules Ornithine to 1 molecule Alpha-KetoGlutarate), it produces a release of Growth Hormone much larger than with either compound used alone.

    PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE (PS): A substance derived from soy lecithin that actually blocks cortisol. Cortisol stops muscle growth, slows amino acid and glycogen uptake into muscle, retards RNA synthesis and robs your body of muscle. Phosphatidylserine deters the signal from the nervous system to the pituitary gland to reduce the output of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) which is responsible for stimulating the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol. The less ACTH the less cortisol. And PS also improves cognitive ability. When people over 50 were given PS in one study, three-quarters of the test subjects reported improved cognitive ability, greater mental clarity, longer attention spans and improved memory. (4)

    PROTEIN QUALITY: Protein quality is crucial. Protein high in all essential amino acids, in the correct ratios to each other, yield the highest levels of IGF. Clemons has shown that the adequate protein calorie diets supplemented with essential amino acids cause a 20% greater increase in IGF levels in human subjects, than the same diets supplemented with nonessential amino acids. Maintain nitrogen balance every day with a top quality protein supplement.

    PYCTOGEN: A Vitamin C potentiator; is a super antioxidant; improves circulation; reduces inflammation. Has been found to be significantly more effective than Vitamin E and Vitamin C as a free radical scavenger. Helpful in reducing free radical damage shown to lead to such diseases as cancer, heart disease, arthritis and accelerated aging. Reduces free radical-caused tissue damage many times more effectively than Vitamin E, potentiates the health-giving effects of Vitamin C, and protects the brain and nerve tissue with its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and protect brain cells. This product also improves circulation and reduces inflammation, which relieves the distresses of arthritis, diabetes, and stroke and promotes the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. (5)

    SHARK CARTILAGE: Shark Cartilage is a superior natural anti-inflammatory agent that may simultaneously accelerate the healing of tissues. This is good for arthritis and wound healing; helps strengthen the immune system; contains an anti-angiogenesis factor that shuts off blood vessel growth to tumors. This works because cancers that have solid tumors require blood supply to feed the tumors. Cartilage is tissue that contains no blood vessels. (5)

    TAURINE: Found in high concentrations in the tissues of the heart, skeletal muscle and central nervous system. (6)

    VANADYL SULFATE: Mimics Insulin and improves the uptake of blood sugar by muscles. Increases the amount of carbohydrates and protein that are transported into the muscle to increase muscle growth and development. (6)

    VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid): This vitamin is used for collagen production, bone and tooth formation, healing, digestion, red blood cell formation, infection and shock resistance, iodine conservation, and protection against vitamin oxidation. (1)

    VITAMIN E: This vitamin is issued as an antioxidant, increases oxygen availability, aging retardation, blood cholesterol reduction, strengthens capillary walls, lung protection, fertility, and muscle and nerve maintenance. (1)

    1. Mindell, Earl, Earl Mindell’s Vitamin Bible, New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc., 1991
    2. Colgan, Dr. Michael, Optimum Sports Nutrition, Ronkonkoma, NY:Advanced Research Press, 1993
    3.Bliiznakov, Emile G., M.D.; and Hunt, Gerald L.; The Miracle Nutrient: CoEnzyme Q10, Bantam Books, 1987.
    4.Cenacci, T., Cognitive decline in the elderly, study of phosphatidylserine, Aging 512:1123-1131, 1993.
    5.National Health Products – Sports Nutrition & Training Manual
    6.Uniprol, Inc. Guide to Championship Bodybuilding
    7.Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D., Whole Foods Magazine, 1995.
    8.Prince, Roger, Anabol Naturals – Amino Acid Guide

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